Fucus ceranoides L.
Horned Wrack (Engl.)
Description: Dichotmously branched fronds arising from a small disc via a short stipe; distinct midrib. Plants to 300 mm with terminal receptacles with warty conceptacles; a distinctly papery feel, and characteristically with elongated vesicles that extend beyond the dichotomies.
Habitat: Found in the upper parts of estuaries and similar habitats (e.g. coastal outflows) subjected to the influence of freshwater for part of each tidal cycle.
Distribution: Found from the Mondego River in Portugal (40°N Lat.) to northern Norway (70°N Lat.) and Iceland; absent from the Baltic and most of the North Sea.
Usage: none known.
Similar species: Fucus vesiculosus generally has paired, rounded vesicles; Fucus spiralis and Fucus guiryi lack vesicles. Both F. vesiculosus and F. spiralis have a complicated hybridization history with Fucus ceranoides.